Allocation of The European Credit and Transfer System (ECTS) credits at Galatasaray University
Galatasaray University uses both ECTS and the national credit system in recognition of the workload realized within exchange programs. In accordance with the latest amendment of the law on Higher Education, the ECTS system will be the only valid system applied to all Galatasaray students as of academic year 2013-2014.
What is an ECTS credit?
The European Credit and Transfer System (ECTS) is based upon the average workload realized by the student in order to accomplish the learning outcomes required by the curriculum.Learning outcomes include all the skills that determine what a student will have acquired in terms of knowledge, understanding and practice at the end of the program.
The functioning of the ECTS at Galatasaray University
ECTS credits for each course are calculated according to the principles indicated in the ECTS manual on the basis of the student’s workload (1 ECTS=25 working hours) and in a manner that 60 ECTS credits correspond to the full-time work accomplished in one academic year. ECTS credits indicated in the course catalogue and those obtained within an exchange program are automatically recognized.
The workload taken as a basis to calculate ECTS credits includes the time necessary to accomplish all the activities related to education such as participation in courses, seminars or practical applications, preparation of homeworks or projects, oral presentations, written memoirs, preparation for and participation in examinations, etc.
In order to determine the ECTS credits of a course, the objectives, learning outcomes and the required work are defined and the average workload necessary to acquire the competence is calculated by each instructor. The proposals are evaluated by a commission within every academic unit by taking into consideration the learning outcomes of the program and the national certification framework, so that the estimated workload can be reflected in the form of credits. The workload evaluation is regularly updated through follow-up and student feedback. The ECTS credits of courses offered to more than one academic unit are evaluated by a commission at the university level.
In conformity with the ECTS logic, credits are allocated to all components of a study program (courses, internships, memoirs, theses, etc.) on the basis of workload required by each activity. The results obtained by the student are sanctioned by a local grade that corresponds to a grade on the ECTS grading scale. The credit points of a course are calculated by multiplying the obtained grades by the number of ECTS credits. In order to calculate the Grade Point Average (GPA) of a graduating student, the sum total of the credit points obtained for all courses validated by the student is divided by the sum total of ECTS credits.
Why are ECTS credits useful?
According to the 2009 ECTS User’s Guide of the European Commission:
ECTS is a learner-centred system for credit accumulation and transfer based on the transparency of learning outcomes and learning processes. It aims to facilitate planning, delivery, evaluation, recognition and validation of qualifications and units of learning as well as student mobility. ECTS is widely used in formal higher education and can be applied to other lifelong learning activities.
Consequently, the ECTS is a credit and transfer system that encourages national and international mobility, improves the quality of inter-university exchange, facilitates the recognition of acquired competences at the university as well as outside the formal education system, and insures the transparent follow-up of the student’s curriculum and evaluates fairly his/her work.